On the right side, ATC sound and text can be turned off or on.
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This window will also check the status of speech synthesis software used for ATIS. To change the language used throughout X-Plane, move your mouse to the top of the screen causing the menu to appear and click the Settings icon. We regularly release new updates to the simulator that contain feature enhancements, bug fixes, stability improvements, aircraft and resource updates, flight model improvements, and even new feature additions. This means that if you purchase the Version 11 discs, you will get the Version Of course, you do not have to take advantage of these updates, but it is recommended that you do so.
This means that they may create incompatibilities or create other problems that would not be experienced in the stable releases. The advantage to doing so is that these users get access to the latest enhancements to the software. The downside is that there is a greater risk of encountering problems with third-party models or other general bugs. These features include:.
If your computer is not running a firewall, of course, this is of no concern to you. Unlock the pane by clicking the lock in the lower-left corner and enter the administrator username and password. X-Plane can be modified in a number of ways. You can add aircraft or custom scenery, or you can download plug-ins that can radically alter the functionality of the simulator. The X-Plane Developer site has a wealth of information on creating both scenery and aircraft, and the X-Plane SDK site has documentation on developing plug-ins.
The Plane Maker manual will prove especially useful for users creating aircraft files, while those developing scenery should keep the WorldEditor manual handy. Perhaps the easiest place to find new aircraft is on X-Plane. When downloading a custom aircraft, it will typically be in a compressed folder usually a ZIP file that contains the airplane and all its various paint jobs, airfoils, custom sounds, and instrument panels.
Once the compressed folder is downloaded, you should be able to double-click on it to open or expand it on Macintosh, Windows, or Linux computers. From here, the folder can be dragged and dropped into the Aircraft folder. For instance, for a newly downloaded Piper J—3 Cub, the folder path in Windows might look like this:.
When you start a new flight, your aircraft will show up in the aircraft grid of the Flight Configuration screen. Bind them to a button or key according to the instructions in Configuring Flight Controls. Of course, users can also upload their own aircraft to X-Plane. We place no copyright restrictions of any sort on aircraft made by users with Plane Maker, and these custom aircraft may be uploaded and shared or sold at will.
Custom scenery packages, too, can be found on the X-Plane. These may be downloaded and installed at will. This file determines the order in which scenery packs load, with files at the top of the list overriding those lower down. Additionally, the XAddonManager utility may be helpful for managing a large amount of custom scenery or downloaded objects. The Airport Scenery Gateway is a community-driven effort to collect airport data into a global airport database.
The latest Gateway scenery will be provided automatically via updates. You may also add scenery from the Airport Scenery Gateway before that happens, but note that if you do so, it will suppress any later Global Airport updates to that same airport. People write plug-ins to do all sorts of interesting things like hang weights on the dashboard that move around accurately, run little tugs around to push your airplane on the ground, or draw interesting terrain visualization systems, among other things.
Once again, X-Plane. X-Plane, of course, is a flight simulator. A typical flight consists of some, if not all, of the following steps:. In addition, you might take advantage of a number of features of the simulator either before or during a flight. Here you can pick from four options to get flying. You can also quit from this screen, or adjust your settings. Load Saved Flight will allow you to load one of your saved replay or situation files see the section Creating a Reusable Situation for more details.
Click the button to be taken to the Flight Configuration screen. Note that if you return to the Main Menu found under the File menu after starting any flight, the name of some options will have changed slightly. You can Resume Current Flight or choose Flight Configuration to modify your current flight or create a new one. Figure 5. Setting up a new flight in the Flight Configuration screen. It can place your aircraft on a runway or apron, or it can start you in the air on a 3 or 10 nautical mile approach to a runway.
This screen is divided into three parts. In the top left is a larger version of the airport selection on the previous screen. Note that if the aircraft is moved to an area that does not have any scenery installed, it will end up on a runway which is hovering above the ocean down below. You do not have to choose a location for your flight using the list of world airports. You can also choose from a number of special starts in this screen, such as a carrier cat shot, oil rig approach, or the space shuttle landings.
The first, and easiest, way to set the weather is using the slider on the Flight Configuration screen. Eight options are available, with the cloud cover getting increasingly heavy as you drag the slider right. Click the Customize button for much finer control over the weather.
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It may be easiest to start with the closest type of weather you want with the slider, then go to the Weather Settings screen to tweak the individual settings. The Weather Settings screen allows you to specify the exact weather you want. The largest portion of the screen is for the weather map, which displays the clouds and wind layers in relation to each other.
You can use the Preset Conditions drop down menu to set some preset weather conditions to start designing your custom weather from:. This puts no wind or cloud layers in the weather map, and the visibility slider is set to 25 statute miles. VFR sets the weather to good visual flight rule conditions—clear, sunny skies with no wind and visibility at 7sm.
Marginal VFR sets the weather marginal VFR flying conditions, with about five miles of visibility and a 1, foot ceiling. Non-Precision Approach sets the weather for a non-precision approach, with a 3 mile visibility and a foot ceiling. These are extremely low instrument conditions, with basically zero ceiling and visibility.
Stormy sets the weather to about IFR-I level ceiling and visibility conditions with heavy precipitation and storms, of course. Note that each layer you add will be placed above any existing layers of the same type, so it will be most efficient to design your weather from the bottom up. The weather map is very tactile—you can grab the icons and drag them up and down, and some cloud types allow you to adjust their edges to make them wider or narrower.
Click on a layer to adjust additional settings in the Layer Properties column on the left side of the window. Specifying the cloud and wind layers in Weather Settings. Cloud layers can be set to cirrus, various amounts of cumulus, and stratus. You can adjust the heights of the clouds by using the sliders, or typing in the boxes for the most precision. These heights are measured in feet above mean sea level MSL.
The altitude, speed, turbulence, gust, and shear of wind layers can also be adjusted by dragging the sliders or specifying a number in the boxes. You can click and drag near the edge of the direction circle to make the wind come from that direction. In the right side of the Weather Settings window are the setting sliders for atmospheric conditions. Here you can also change the units of measure, such as switch the temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius for example. The Set visibility drop down and slider adjusts what its name suggests, measured in statute miles for atmospheric visibility or feet for runway visual range.
The precipitation slider sets the level of precipitation. Depending on the temperature around the airplane and in the clouds where it is formed, this will be in the form of rain, hail, or snow. The storminess slider adjusts the tendency for convective activity. The weather radar map in the lower-right of the window shows where the cells are forming. Flying into these cells results in heavy precipitation and extreme turbulence. The turbulence is great enough that in reality, airplanes can fly into thunderstorms in one piece and come out in many smaller pieces.
Taking helicopters into these icing and thunderstorm situations is interesting because their very high wing-loading on their rotor and the fact that the rotor is free teetering causes them to have a pretty smooth ride in turbulence. They are still not indestructible, though, and they are subject to icing on their blades just like an airplane. Next, the temperature at the nearest airport and the barometric pressure air pressure at sea level can be set. These controls are mainly used when flying gliders. Try setting the wind at 30 knots or better at a right angle to a mountain range and running along the upwind side of the mountain range in a glider—you should be able to stay aloft on the climbing air if you stay pretty low.
Drift to the downwind side of the mountain, though, and an unstoppable descent is assured! Changing the wave height, in feet, will also modify the wave length and speed. Downloading real weather will obtain weather and winds information for the entire world, contained in three files in the main folder: To enable this, first open the Customize Weather screen from Flight Configuration. If you want to download weather at some other time, you can always come back to this window and press the Refresh button. For custom weather, create a custom text file that list the reporting station name as MDEG.
Then add the longitude, latitude, and elevation. X-Plane has 16 weather envelopes spanning the area around the flying region. Each bucket is about 1. This file will load custom winds at 10, ft and 34, ft into X-Plane, so you have winds aloft for both light planes and airliners, with interpolation for turboprops that fly in between. Each of the numbers after the latitude represent the direction, speed and temperature.
Add additional columns of wind information to correspond to specific altitudes: Note that you may leave a lower altitude column blank if the location is already above that altitude, but you must enter a full winds-aloft report for all of the altitudes. At feet, the wind direction is , with a speed of 10 knots.
Continue on in this manner when you are adding custom winds or interpreting the report. The simplest way of setting the time of day is by dragging the slider in the bottom right of the Flight Configuration screen. Click on the Customize button to change the date, time or GMT offset by using the drop down menus. For instance, there are fewer daylight hours in December than in June in North America, as in the real world.
The options available in the Customize window of Time of Day. The Cessna is an excellent choice in this regard, a fact attested to by the millions of real-world pilots trained in this model. If you are not using flight controls, you will have to fly with the mouse. This means that the mouse is free to move anywhere without impacting the flight controls. To grab the stick and thus take control of the aircraft , click the left mouse button in the vicinity of the little white cross and a white box will appear around the cross. The mouse button should not be held down, only clicked once to turn the box on i.
Thus, moving the mouse directly below the cross will command some up elevator causing the plane to climb and will not impose any roll commands which should keep the aircraft from changing its bank. Likewise, keeping the mouse lined up exactly with the cross but deflecting it to the right a bit will cause the plane to bank to the right without altering its pitch. If you are not familiar with flying an airplane or using X-Plane, check out Flight School for tutorials on many basic aviation concepts. To access Flight School, go to the main menu found under the File menu and click the button for Flight School.
To take off, the airplane must first be located at the end of a runway. Continue to advance the throttle and be ready to feed in some right yaw using the right rudder or the twist on the joystick, if applicable as the airplane accelerates. The tendency to turn to the left is normal in single engine aircraft due to the turn of the propeller. Normally, the pilot will rotate that is, apply some up elevator by pulling back on the yoke or stick at about 60 knots in the Cessna Once the aircraft leaves the ground, push the stick forward a bit to momentarily level off and allow the airplane to build speed.
Once the craft reaches 80 knots or so, pull back gently on the stick again and resume climbing. Building airspeed before climbing this way will help keep the plane from stalling. If the impact is only hard enough to damage the airplane without necessarily destroying it, the aircraft will just sit there and smoke. If this happens, you will need to open the Flight Configuration screen and start a new flight.
If only it were so easy in the real world! To land the plane you must first locate an airport and runway. Make sure the Starts button is toggled to Runway, then pick you desired distance from the drop down menu. The goal is to be around stalling speed about 50 knots in the Cessna right at touchdown for the smoothest landing. As you near the runway, cut the throttle completely and pitch the nose up about 7 degrees to gently land the plane.
Apply the brakes to come to a complete stop. To operate a button, just click it and release. To operate a switch, do the same to change its position. For example, to bring the landing gear down on planes that are able to , click with the landing gear switch. Of course, this control will look different in different aircraft. Keep in mind that the g key could also be used or a joystick button could be assigned to toggle the gear.
Click repeatedly for greater movements. To easily see the controls within the cockpit that the mouse can operate, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show clickable regions in the cockpit. This will draw green boxes around the areas of the instrument panel that can be manipulated with the mouse.
This will allow you to see the whole of the cockpit. Alternatively, you can use the up, down, left, and right arrow keys to move your view around in the 2-D panel view. To get a quick description of the instruments in the panel, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show instrument instructions in the cockpit. Avionics in most airplanes utilize twin concentric knobs that allow the pilot to tune the radio. For example, there will typically be a large knob on the surface of the radio, with a smaller knob sticking out from the large one.
For example, imagine that the COM1 radio the communications radio number 1 needed to be tuned to In a real aircraft, the pilot would turn the big, lower knob until was visible in the window, then turn the small, upper knob until 00 was visible. X-Plane is set up the same way. When hovering the mouse in the vicinity of one of the radio tuning knobs, two counter-clockwise arrows will appear on the left of the knob and two clockwise arrows on the right.
The arrows closest to the knob are physically smaller than those on the outside-these adjust the decimal portion of the frequency. The outside arrows are larger and adjust the integer portion of the frequency. You can change your view of the aircraft using the View menu, or by using the keyboard shortcuts listed on the right side of each option in the View menu.
Using the menus or the appropriate keyboard shortcuts, you can select a view or modify your current view. The controls for view selection affect the type of view that you are using. For instance, you may choose to be in the cockpit, looking forward at the instrument panel, or you may select an external view, perhaps where you look at your aircraft from the point of view of the nearest air traffic control tower. View selection controls are described in Table 5. After selecting some view, you can modify the view using translation moving left, right, fore, or aft , rotation spinning about your point of focus , or zoom changing the angle of view.
The default keyboard shortcuts for these effects are listed in Table 5. In this mode, you can move your view around the cockpit in one of a few ways:. This mode leaves the mouse free to click on things in the cockpit without affecting where you are looking. In 3-D cockpit mode, you can use the keyboard shortcuts or the View menu itself to change where you are looking. These are described in Table 5. Quick Look allows you to set up a view just the way you like it, and then save it as a hot key or command.
Then, in the future, whenever you press that key on the keyboard or button on your joystick, as the case may be , you can go right back to that view again. Note that the Quick Looks are aircraft-specific preferences. This means that your Quick Look views in the Cessna do not interfere with your views in the King Air, and so on. This can take some time to set up and if you do it often, it can get tedious.
The solution, then, is to set up a Quick Look. Note that the Num Lock must be on in order to do this. Now, no matter how your view changes, when you press the shortcut for Quick Look 1 by default, Num Pad 1 , your head position, orientation and zoom goes right back to your memorized view of the throttle quadrant. When pressing the Ctrl key along with any of those numbers, you will store your current view to be recalled later by that number key.
Quick Looks are not just for 3-D cockpit mode, either. X-Plane has the capability to fly an aircraft using artificial intelligence AI. The AI system can handle all aspects of flying your aircraft, including taxiing around the airport, take off and landing. Click Aircraft, then select A. Flies Your Aircraft. Furthermore, this is an excellent way to practice tuning radios.
In addition, you can have the AI control your view by opening the Aircraft menu and selecting A. Controls Your Views. If you need help with a certain aspect of the simulator, open the menu and check for a question mark icon in the right corner. Click on the icon to open a webpage with additional information and instructions about the screen you are currently viewing. In each case, you can save the flight and replay it yourself, or you can upload it to the Internet for others to see.
It also includes information on the environmental conditions of the flight, including cloud conditions, temperature, and time of day. Furthermore, any other aircraft you have loaded will also be noted. This is especially useful for quickly loading and practicing a specific type of approach, or for recreating a specific combat situation. To load a situation in order to fly it again, open the File menu and click Load Flight.
You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Situations button. If you do not see your file in any of the lists, you can also click the Open Saved Flight Not Listed button to open a file browser window to navigate to the file, wherever you saved it. Click on the. This file is only viewable in X-Plane, but because it is so complete, you can change your view as much as you like while replaying. To load a replay, open the File menu as before, but select Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Replay button.
In addition to file types readable only by X-Plane, you can also create more universally readable movies. The downside to these movie files is that they record exactly what you see when you record them, and they do not record sound. After recording the movie, you can edit it in a program like iMovie installed on new Macs by default or Windows Live Movie Maker.
In choosing a frame rate, know that videos produced at 15 frames per second will look jittery. Film and television use 24 and 30 frames per second, respectively. Your movie file can be played back on virtually any computer. If the appropriate software is not installed on the computer you want to play the file on, you can get a free cross-platform multimedia player from the VideoLAN Organization. The final method of saving or sharing your flight is to take a simple screenshot.
In addition to being able to save replays for later playback as described in the section Saving and Sharing Your Flight above , you can visualize your flight up to your present location in a few different ways. The path taken by an aircraft up to its current location can always be seen as a trail behind the aircraft when you toggle the 3-D flight path on.
Cycling it again will give a semi-transparent black bar extending from the flight path to the ground seen in Figure 5. Cycling the path once more will turn off the flight path lines. The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location.
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You can replay your flight, from the last time you loaded an aircraft or a location up to your current location, by toggling the replay mode on. In the top of the window, you will see shuttle controls to listed left to right:. Additionally, you can click the shuttle slider and drag it to quickly jump around in the playback. The final method of visualizing a flight is to load information from a flight data recorder FDR. This is useful primarily in accident investigation and re-creation.
You can load. Then you will be greeted with the standard replay shuttle buttons with which you can replay the flight. X-Plane models flight by breaking an aircraft down into a number of little pieces and finding the forces acting on each piece. With some wind and turbulence turned on in the Weather screen, you can even see the pseudo-random velocity vector flow field around the airplane. The velocity vectors seen are the actual vectors interacting with the aircraft, and the force vectors the green lines coming off the plane are the actual forces acting on the plane—nothing is just for show here.
Illustrating the forces acting on a Baron The green bars extending from the control surfaces of the aircraft indicate how much lift each section of the surface is generating; longer bars represent greater force. The red bars, likewise, represent drag, and the yellow bars represent lift from vertical control surfaces. The flow field around a Baron The vector popping out of each point around the airplane shows if the air is being pushed up, down, fore, or aft or, for that matter, side to side by the rudder or vertical stabilizer compared to the speed and direction of the center of gravity of the airplane.
Additionally, these on-screen visual representations provide no numerical data. The text file will include angles of attack, forces, velocities and additional data for that instant of your flight. X-Plane is the most comprehensive and powerful flight simulator available. As such, there are a great number of features available that go beyond simply taking off, flying around, and landing.
These include tools like the logbook and checklists, and features like equipment failures and damage modeling. Each time an aircraft is flown in X-Plane, the program logs the flight time in a digital logbook. Inside this text file are the following details of previous flights:. Although AI aircraft will always follow the guidance of the air traffic control, they will also work around your aircraft if you are not interacting with the ATC. You will only be able to hear the air traffic control chatter if ATC audio output is enabled; to confirm this is the case, open the Settings screen, then click Sound.
All interactions with the air traffic control occur via the on-screen ATC window. To access this feature, simply press Enter Return on the keyboard. You can also program a button on a joystick to access this screen or click the headset icon in the menu. In order to make a request or hear from the air traffic controllers, you must have your COM 1 radio tuned to the proper frequency for the request. Filing a flight plan is independent of any controller, so that option is always available. However, once the flight plan is filed, you must tune to the Clearance Delivery, Ground, or Tower frequencies if available, in that order as in the real world to get clearance for takeoff.
After you get clearance, you tune to the Ground if available or Tower frequencies for your taxi clearance. To see these frequencies, as well as other important airport information, click on the airport in the Map window, then on Details in the box that opens. You can always tune your radios by hand, but you can also auto-tune your COM1 radio by clicking on any line in the ATC list. Figure 6. As in the real world, any ATC interaction begins with filing a flight plan.
Click that button to open the Flight Plan window shown in Figure 6. You may specify an airline and a flight number if desired. The starting airport will already be filled in, but you must enter your destination airport code, as well as your planned cruising enroute altitude.
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The Flight Plan window. It will help you through each step in the proper order and give you hints if you get off track. Tune your COM1 radio to Remember you can do this by hand, by clicking on the line in the list of controllers, or, if auto-tune is enabled, it will happen automatically. You now have a flight plan in the system.
If you wish to change your mind, you can return to the flight plan dialog in the same way and update it. As in the real world, you must wait for them to finish talking before you can talk. You must also respond within a reasonable amount of time or they will repeat their instructions. Click Request Taxi to call ground to receive a taxi clearance.
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Acknowledge the clearance as described above and then look around you. Where the arrows stop, you must also stop and wait for further instructions. Taxi to where the arrows are taking you. When you reach the side of the runway, ground will instruct you to contact the tower. Read back the command and then tune to the tower frequency of Check in with this new controller.
If there are aircraft using the runway, you will have to wait until they are done. This may take some time! At that time,. Tower will call you and give you your takeoff clearance. Respond and then depart. Unless otherwise instructed, fly the runway heading up to your cleared altitude of 3, feet.
At some point, you will be handed off to the center controller on Check in as you did before. Continue on your heading and altitude and eventually Center will begin vectoring you to an approach at your destination of KBFI. X-Plane has the ability to display a simple checklist in the simulator. To load a check list, open the File menu and click Open Checklist.
Open it and you will see the checklist displayed line-by-line in the checklist window. You can use the forward and back buttons to go to the next and previous lines, respectively. If you prefer to see the text file all at once rather than line-by-line as in the checklist view , you can select Open Text File from the File menu and then load a file in the manner discussed above.
However, by opening the Settings screen and clicking on General, you can enable the option to Remove flying surfaces when over speed or over G limits. An airplane can typically stay in the air at very high weights, but it will have a hard time getting off the ground initially. Additionally, moving the center of gravity forward left on the slider makes the plane behave more like a dart, and moving the center of gravity aft right on the slider makes the plane more unstable, and potentially unflyable.
Flying a plane with the center of gravity far aft is like shooting an arrow backwards—it wants to flip around with the heavy end in the front and the fins in the back. X-Plane can simulate countless aircraft systems failures. You can access this feature while in the Flight Configuration screen by clicking on an aircraft icon, then the Customize button, then the Failures button.
If the Set global mean time between failures box is checked, the simulator will use the value to the right to determine how often, on average, each piece of equipment will fail. Since the airplane has a few hundred pieces of hardware, that means a failure might occur every 5 to 20 hours or so. Checking this box essentially allows the possibility of random and unexpected failures. The World section of the Failures window controls things outside of the airplane, such as bird strikes and airport equipment failures.
The other categories and subcategories in this window let the user set the frequency of specific failures for hundreds of different aircraft systems. Many of the options allow you to specify a time, speed, or other condition at which they will fail. A smoke trail, as might be used by an aerobatic airplane in an airshow, can be enabled behind your aircraft.
You can assign a different key by following the instructions in Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts. This is seen most often for users running at standard speed, but failing to maintain 20 frames per second. The result is that the physics are integrating in slow-motion in order to avoid destabilizing from the low framerate. Thus, if you need real-time simulation, you must run the simulator at 20 fps or faster. In commercial aircraft, a nosewheel tiller is used to more accurately align the nosewheel to the taxi lines, and to get the aircraft safely docked at jetways.
You can assign an axis on your joystick to control this tiller by opening the Settings screen, going to Joystick and, in one of the drop-down menus in the Axis tab, selecting nosewheel tiller. X-Plane The additional system requirements for VR are:. Note that no Intel GPUs are supported. In addition, you may need to enable foreign apps in the VR system settings. Click on SteamVR under the Tools section in the left sidebar, then the install button. As long as your headset is attached and your GPU meets minimum requirements , there will be a checkbox to enable VR hardware.
Note that if you have the VR Mouse cursor enabled, you may need to completely remove the headset to restore use of the 2d mouse cursor on your computer monitor. From here you can access the main menu, all settings, and any pop up warning screens. The default fleet minus the R—71 is VR-ready but 3rd party aircraft may be less usable in VR unless you use the 3D mouse to interact with the cockpit.
In general, the manipulators in and around the aircraft function the way they would it real life. Grab the throttle of the Cessna by pressing and holding the trigger near it. It will light up green, then push or pull the knob to adjust the setting. Lightly and partially squeeze the VR controller trigger to see a green laser appear.
This feature essentially takes traditional manipulation and lets you perform the motion at any distance or angle that is convenient for you. By default, the pilot yoke behaves in a realistic manner—tilt your wrist left or right for roll, and push in or pull out to control pitch. Ergonomic mode behaves slightly differently than real life—it works by tilting your wrist up or down to control pitch, and rolling your wrist left right for roll.
Moving forward and back does nothing. This allows you to keep your hand in a relaxed and comfortable position while you fly and also allows you to be more precise with the controls. You must press the trigger a second time to release it. If you do have hardware rudder pedals, it is up to you to control them. Move around the aircraft or the world by using teleport: Some parts of the aircraft, such as seats, have a hotspot which will light up and snap you to that location.
When you press the button, it zooms your view in so you can see distant things a bit clearer. When you release the button, your view resets. Press the three line button the menu button of the virtual controller to access the menu options. This option is the only supported way to recenter your view inside the cockpit. Within the quick menu is a three-line menu option that opens the main menu so you can access the usual options: Use the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to move around menus and submenus, then use the trigger on the controller to select an option.
The menu option provides access to many of the options from the traditional menu bar. Pop out windows such as ground services, ATC, the map, and more are available from the controller menu by selecting the icon that looks like two window boxes on the left side. You can also bind a joystick button or key to this option. This cursor will function basically the same as a non-VR mouse. VR is more demanding on your computer than simply using the desktop simulator. If you are not consistently running at least 45 fps in the base desktop sim, you will need to turn rendering settings down.
If that does not help, a full restart of the computer often seems to fix many problems with launching VR. That click is being stolen by SteamVR for internal functions. People often call customer support asking about some of the more advanced things that pilots do in the real world—how to navigate, use an autopilot, or fly on instruments.
This chapter will cover these areas in a fair amount of detail, but we recommend that, if you are really serious about mastering these facets of aviation, you head down to a local general aviation airport and hire a CFI Certified Flight Instructor for an hour or two. If you have a laptop, by all means bring it along and have the instructor detail these things in practice. There is much more to review here than this manual could ever cover, so a quick search for information on the Internet will also be of assistance.
You have no reference to the ground and are flying over St. Louis in the middle of an overcast layer. As you might guess, this looks pretty much identical to the view you would have flying over Moscow on instruments. Louis and not over Moscow is to be able to navigate. You can pick from three different modes: Figure 7. The VFR Sectional map is designed for use under visual flight rules. It only shows the information of interest to pilots flying above 18, feet and making use of vector airways that are much longer, based on larger VORs with longer ranges.
The maps provide a lot of information on the area where your aircraft is located, including topography and selectable NAVAIDs. The thick blue and gray lines running across the maps are airways, which are basically like highways in the sky. These vector airways are given names for example, V and are used by air traffic controls to assign clearances. Small airports are indicated by notched circles, while larger airports with are shown as full runway layouts. Airports shown in blue on the VFR sectional map have control towers in the real world. To move your view around a map, you can click the map and drag.
You can also zoom in and out by using your mouse scroll wheel. Additionally, you can use the viewing control buttons located in the top left corner of the map window to alter your view. Use the plus or minus icons to zoom in or out respectively. Tap the target icon to center the view on the aircraft. This will also lock the map view onto the aircraft so that as you fly, the map will scroll underneath it and the aircraft will stay in the center.
Drag anywhere on the map to break the lock. In this second case, if the plane is flying south, the top of the map will be south. If the plane banks to the east, the map will automatically rotate and east will now be on top. Click on anything in the map to get more information on it. For example, if you click on your aircraft, the Inspector box will pop up with its name, heading, altitude, speed, and climb angle, most of which you can also edit from within the window.
Clicking on an airport will allow you to pick a new runway or final approach, or view details such as weather conditions and communications frequencies. In the right side of the map window you can change what is displayed on the map. You can check the boxes to toggle the flight path, a compass rose around your aircraft, or to disable downwind ILS beacons. Non-directional beacons were invented in the late s and consisted of a ground-based transmitter that broadcast a homing signal.
A receiver in the aircraft could be tuned to one of about discrete frequencies in order to tune to a particular transmitter. Although nearly abandoned in the United States, NDBs are still used in many countries around the world. It is for this reason that they are modeled in X-Plane. Very High Frequency Omni-Range navigation or VOR was introduced in the mid—s and represented a large improvement in navigation accuracy. Instead of an NDB that a pilot could home in on, the VOR sends a series of discrete little carrier tones on a main frequency. Each of these carriers is oriented along a different radial from the station, one of just like a compass rose.
You can imagine it like the wheel of a bike: Thus, when you are flying along and tune in the main VOR frequency, you then fine tune your navigation display to tell you which of the radials you are flying and also whether the transmitter station is in front of or behind you. This error could only be due to two factors—either the pilot was not flying along the radial or the wind blew the airplane slightly off of course.
Click on the map icon to open a window that will allow you to tune the frequency into your NAV 1 radio automatically. Keep in mind that you can also tune the navigation radio built into the GPS, but you may have to hit the flip-flop switch to bring the frequency you just tuned into the active window on top. The vertical line in the center is the reference indicator, and moves to the left and right to indicate where the aircraft is in relation to a chosen radial. Select a radial by turning the OBS knob which rotates the compass rose around the instrument; the chosen radial is indicated above the top yellow arrow.
Now you can determine where you are in relation to the VOR by finding what radial you are on, or you can enter a radial you want to be on in order to plot your desired course. Keep in mind that all radials are measured as the heading when moving away from a VOR beacon. Determining what radial you are on is simple. The number above the yellow arrow at the top of the CDI is your current radial position.
To intercept a different radial, look at your map again to determine where you are in relation to the station. If you are inbound to the station, pick the reciprocal on the opposite side of the station from your aircraft. If you are outbound, use the radial your aircraft is currently on. Turn the OBS dial again to enter the desired radial at the top of the circle.
Most likely the vertical line will be off to one side or the other. This indicates how far you are from your desired radial. To the left and right of the center target the little white circle the instrument displays five dots or short lines on each side. Each of these dots indicates that you are two degrees off of course. Thus, a full scale left deflection of the vertical reference indicates that the aircraft is 10 degrees right of the desired radial. Just remember that as long as you are flying towards the VOR, the line on the CDI indicates the location of the desired course.
If the reference line is on your left that means that your target radial is on your left, and you should turn that direction. Your aim is to get the vertical line in the center and to stay there, indicating you are flying the desired radial. You have no way of telling if you are 15 miles from the station or 45 miles away. An ILS is therefore made up of two transmitters, a localizer and a glide slope—one for each component of the navigation.
A localizer LOC transmitter provides lateral guidance to the centerline of a runway. It works by sending out two signals on the same channel, one of which modulates at 90 Hz and the other of which modulates at Hz. One of these signals is sent out slightly to the left of the runway, while the other sent out slightly to the right of it.
If an aircraft is picking up more of the tone modulated at Hz, it is off to the left. If it is picking up more of the tone modulated at 90 Hz, it is off to the right. The course deviation indicator or CDI in the instrument panel then indicates this so that the pilot can correct it. When both tones are being received in equal amounts, the craft is lined up with the physical centerline of the runway. The glide slope beacon functions similarly to the localizer, sending out two tones that have the same frequency, but different modulations.
The difference is that the glide slope tells the plane that it is either too high or too low for its distance from the runway. The ILS will allow a pilot to fly on instruments only to a point that is a half mile from the end of the runway at feet depending on the category of the ILS above the ground. If the runway cannot be clearly seen at that point the pilot is prevented from executing a normal landing. The Global Positioning System was first created for the US military and introduced to the public in the early s. This system consists of a series of satellites orbiting the Earth which continuously send out signals telling their orbital location and the time the signal was sent.
A GPS receiver can tune in to the signals they send out and note the time it took for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver for several different satellites at once. Since the speed at which the signals travel is known, it is a simple matter of arithmetic to determine how far from each satellite the receiver is. Triangulation or, rather, quadrangulation is than used to determine exactly where the receiver is with respect to the surface of the Earth.
In an aircraft, this information is compared with the onboard database to determine how far it is to the next airport, navigational aid NAVAID , waypoint, or whatever. The concept is simple, but the math is not. GPS systems have turned the world of aviation on its head, allowing everyday pilots to navigate around with levels of accuracy that were unimaginable 20 years ago.
While the intricate workings of the various GPS radios are complex, the basic principals are pretty consistent. On the Garmin , entry is performed using the control knob on the bottom right of the unit. The databases in these radios are not limited simply to the identifiers of the airports you may wish to fly to. To begin a discussion on instrument flight, we must first discuss why it is so difficult.
Rather, the difficulty lies in believing what the instruments are saying. Your body has developed a system of balance and equilibrium that has evolved in humans over millions of years, and forcing your brain to ignore these signals and to believe what the instruments are telling you is very difficult. To put it bluntly, in a real aircraft, your life depends on ignoring your feelings and senses and flying based solely on the information in front of you.
The gyroscope was invented many decades before aircraft, but its tremendous implications for flying were not realized until the mid- to late—s. The basic principal that they work on is that if you take a relatively heavy object and rotate it at a high rotational velocity it will hold its position in space. You can then mount this stable, rigid gyroscope in an instrument that is fixed to your aircraft and measure the relative motion of the instrument case and thus the airplane about the fixed gyro.
There are three primary gyroscopic instruments in the panel. They are:. The three primary gyroscopic instruments in the Cessna The AI indicates what attitude the aircraft is flying at—how far the nose is above or below the horizon, as well as how far the wings are banked and in which direction. There are six primary instruments that have become standard in any instrument panel. The airspeed indicator shows the speed at which the aircraft is traveling through the air. In its simplest form, it is nothing more than a spring which opposes the force of the air blowing in the front of a tube attached under the wing or to the nose of the aircraft.
The attitude indicator informs the pilot of his or her position in space relative to the horizon. This is accomplished by fixing the case of the instrument to the aircraft and measuring the displacement of the case with reference to a fixed gyroscope inside. The altimeter looks somewhat like the face of a clock and serves to display altitude.
This is measured by the expansion or contraction of a fixed amount of air acting on a set of springs. As the airplane climbs or descends, the relative air pressure outside the aircraft changes and the altimeter reports the difference between the outside air pressure and a reference, contained in a set of airtight bellows.
The turn coordinator measures the rate of turn for the aircraft. The instrument is only accurate when the turn is coordinated-that is, when the airplane is not skidding or slipping through the turn. In a car, this results in a turn radius that is larger than that commanded by the driver. It results from an aircraft that is banked too steeply for the rate of turn selected. The directional gyro is a simple instrument that points north and thus allows the pilot to tell which way she or he is flying. Typically, non-pressurized airplanes will climb comfortably at about fpm if the plane is capable and descend at about fpm.
Pressurized airplanes can climb and descend much more rapidly and still maintain the cabin rate of change at about these levels, since the cabin altitude is not related to the ambient altitude unless the pressurization system fails. Similar steps can be used for any airport in any application.
To fly an instrument approach, we first need to know the local navigational aid NAVAID frequencies in order to tune our radios. Now, Sea-Tac is a busy airport, so you may have to zoom in to find the ILS for the runway you are approaching. When you find it, though, you can click on it to highlight in yellow the ILS path and to open a small window with details. From this window you can tune your radios with a click of a button and place your aircraft up in the air at the perfect spot for the approach.
Recall from the discussion of ILSs previously in this chapter that an ILS combines the functionality of a localizer providing lateral guidance to the centerline of the runway with a glide slope transmitter providing vertical guidance down to the runway. Having found the relevant ILS frequency, enter it into the Nav 1 radio remember you can tune your radios automatically using the buttons in the map window. Click the GPS screen in the cockpit to bring up the close-up of the instrument if needed. However, in ILS navigation both the horizontal and vertical lines move to provide guidance.
The localizer is represented by a vertical line. When it is in the center of the CDI, it means that the aircraft is lined up almost perfectly with the physical centerline of the runway. The glide slope indicator portion of the CDI is represented by a horizontal line. When this is in the center of the instrument, the aircraft is perfectly in line with the glide slope and is descending at an ideal rate. Below the attitude indicator is the directional gyro.
You can use this to line up your approach with a known heading e. Additionally, the glide slope indicator will begin to move. This line functions like the vertical one: If its needles are above the center of the instrument then the craft needs to fly up to get back on track, and if they are below the center of the instrument, it needs to fly down to intercept the glide slope. However, the glide slope is in most cases a downward slope at three degrees, so you should never need to climb to intercept it, just adjust the rate of descent. The horizontal line is above us when we start the approach, since we started 10 nm out from the runway.
Continue flying the same altitude, and the line will slowly come down to the center, and from there you should control the descent to keep it there. The goal is to keep the vertical line centered to stay on the localizer, and the horizontal line centered to stay on the glide slope. Follow the guidance of the localizer and glide slope until the craft reaches an altitude of about feet above the runway.
At this point, if everything was done correctly, the runway will be right in front of the aircraft. In the Cessna, this is about 65 knots. This instrument allows pilots to fly a GPS approach as well as direct-to navigation. The GPS essentially combines three things: This can be moved around the cockpit as needed. Clicking the GPS display in the cockpit a second time will close the window. The controls on left side adjust the VOR, localizer and communication frequencies, while the ones on the right control GPS functions.
When the bottom frequency is highlighted in a paler blue, you can use the inner and outer rotating knobs to change the frequency. Baixe Ochre Gratuitamente. Jogue isso em sua trilha vocal. Baixe La Petite Excite Gratuitamente. Ou adicione um pouco de grit com o tubo overdrive. Baixe o SGA Gratuitamente. Baixe o Ace Gratuitamente. Baixe Molot Gratuitamente. Baixe Voxengo Tube Amp Gratuitamente. Baixe o MJUC jr. Baixe o Softube Saturation Knob Gratuitamente.
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